They have also been found to play important roles in the development of cancers. Some of these non-coding RNAs, including miRNA, have been linked, recently, to the over or under expression of several genes associated with cancer and other life-threatening diseases such as heart disease, and alterations in their expressions have been shown to impact cancer cell growth, survival and the ability to spread Liu et al.
For instance, the loss of the miRNA expression is associated with the metastasis of melanoma Liu et al. MiR is a member of a miRNA cluster in a chromosomal locus that is most often amplified in melanoma Segura et al. It is frequently up-regulated in human melanoma tissue samples and cell lines, and this up-regulation causes its ectopic expression, which stimulates migration of melanoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo.
The down-regulation of this miRNA triggers apoptosis. Over-expression of miR in malignancy has been shown to negatively impact these tumor suppressor genes by directly repressing them. The repression of these genes allows miRNA to promote the spread and migration of melanoma cells, not taking into account the properties necessary for metastasis to occur. In a fairly recent experiment done by Penna et al. In this experiment, these genes, known to contain one or more binding sites of the miRNA, were obtained and their three prime untranslated regions 3'UTRs cloned into a vector.
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Various genes altered by general mutations or amplification in malignant melanoma. Many genes are altered genetically and epigenetically in cancers, which is one of the reasons cancer is so hard to combat. This is not uncommon, as cells need multiple changes to the genome to initiate a change as large as cancer. The epigenetic side of cancer research is growing and uncovering many overlaps like in the cases of INK4A and PTEN, giving a larger, more accurate image of cancer and melanoma.
The complexity and variability of cancer epigenetics makes this a growing and important field.
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Since epigenetic modifications are able to be reversed, this makes them a target for therapeutics and part of the future of cancer combat, and specifically melanoma, due to its deadliness and difficulty to catch. The genes listed above are only the beginning of a long list of available treatment areas that could potentially reverse or prevent melanoma if detected early. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Maybe She’s Born With it, Maybe it’s Epigenetics: 5 Tips for Beauty and Anti-Aging
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Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. Please Note: Items in our extended range may take longer to deliver. Delivery in Days. See our Delivery Charges section below for a full breakdown of shipping costs for all destinations. Books Education Medical Academic. Epigenetics and dermatology by Qianjin Lu 16 February These histone modifications impact the chromatin structure, or the protein-DNA complex, by opening or closing it to make genes more or less accessible for expression.
If eating plant phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients exerts an epigenetic effect on genes related to inflammation and oxidative stress, then perhaps we could restore skin and improve signs of aging. According to Dr. Draelos in a Dermatology Times article, many companies have created cosmetic products such as topical skin cream that are chockfull of micronutrients.
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However, he noted that they are best consumed, not applied on top of the skin. A comprehensive review article in the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology concluded that consuming EVOO was connected to the activation of defense, protective, and repair epigenetic mechanisms. A team of researchers set out to investigate whether a virgin olive oil based breakfast could reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Ultimately, they found that consuming virgin olive oil, which is rich in phenol compounds, can repress expression of multiple genes related to inflammation, potentially reducing its age-related effects. Although they did not specifically measure the effects on the appearance of the skin, the link between proliferative, antioxidant, and inflammatory pathways and poor skin gives hope to the possible beauty and anti-aging benefits of olive oil. We all know the dangers of tanning or getting too much sun exposure, but did you know it might epigenetically make you age faster, increasing wrinkles and age spots?
Premature aging of the skin caused by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and other sources is known as photoaging. They looked at the level of DNA methylation — an epigenetic mark thought to have a key role in aging — in samples taken from the face and the inner arm. They found much less DNA methylation, referred to as DNA hypomethylation , in the sun-exposed skin of older individuals.
This reduced level of DNA methylation, however, was not detected in the older individuals who protected their skin or in the skin of younger individuals. This hints that the sun might epigenetically impact your skin differently depending on your age and might actually affect you more severely the older you get.
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In light of this possible underlying epigenetic connection between aging and sun exposure, we can take action to protect our skin from aging faster. Using sunscreen when lying out can not only reduce the chances of harmful skin cancer, but it may also protect the body from wrinkles, age spots, and loose, dry skin.
Not only does that glass of red wine help you unwind after a hard day of work, but it might also help give your skin that coveted healthy glow. Sirtuin-1, or SIRT1, is a histone deacetylase that protects cells from stress events. The personal care industry has placed significant emphasis on studying HDACs and epigenetic modulators in order to preserve expression in younger cells and organisms and develop anti-aging treatments.